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Waste heat recovery uses 'supercritical CO2'31 Jan 2013GE Marine has announced an agreement with US company Echogen Power Systems to supply Echogen’s heat-to-power system for use on commercial and military marine vessels.GE says that the Echogen system, for which it has agreed worldwide commercial and military maritime rights, will enhance its mechanical, hybrid and all-electric propulsion system solutions.The Echogen technology captures exhaust heat energy from gas turbines and/or diesel engines and converts it to useful power. GE adds that while the concept is not new, Echogen’s system uses supercritical CO2 (sCO2) as its working fluid, which allows for a more compact, lighter and economical configuration than traditional steam systems. The Echogen system is claimed to be able to convert significant amounts of heat energy into useful power, over a broad range of exhaust temperatures. The first sCO2 marine engine system to be tested by Echogen, in the first part of 2013, will be of 7MW power, with 2MW and 0.4MW products expected in 2016.“This product is an important addition to GE Marine’s existing worldwide product portfolio, given fuel efficiency and emissions are very important to ship owners and operators. Converting energy that traditionally gets exhausted out of a stack into useful power allows the overall system efficiency to increase by up to 30%,” says Brien Bolsinger, vice president, marine operations, GE Marine.“The marine market represents a tremendous application for our supercritical CO2 engine, and GE Marine is a powerful partner offering speed and scale to market,” says Phil Brennan, CEO, Echogen Power Systems. “We are pleased that our technology will enable GE Marine to provide more value to its customers, while supporting Echogen’s goal of displacing steam as the power fluid of choice for engines under 50MW in size.”
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MARINE APPLICATIONSToday's military and commercial marine vessels require powerful engines with high efficiency and minimal environmental impact. Volatile oil prices, increasingly stringent emissions regulations, and the constant pressure to lower operating costs, all point to the need for reduced fuel consumption. Conservation alone isn’t enough; a higher efficiency solution is essential to achieve the required reduction.The Echogen system can fulfill several different shipboard energy requirements:* Use waste heat from engines to produce electricity for onboard service power* Use waste heat to increase shaft power by gearing the Echogen engine into a propulsion shaft* Use the system as part of the onboard integrated power system (IPS) to function as an additional generator with no fuel consumption or emissionsRESEARCH WITH NAVY SBIRIn 2009, The U.S. Navy established aggressive fuel reduction goals for its surface fleet. Through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, the Navy challenged businesses to offer a proposal that would achieve these goals, and Echogen answered the call.In 2011 Echogen was awarded SBIR Phase I funding to demonstrate the use of our heat engine technology to improve efficiency and reduce specific fuel consumption for marine gas turbine prime movers and power generation modules.Echogen’s follow-on research in Phase II will focus on improved conceptual design and advanced heat-exchanger development and testing.COMMERCIALIZATION WITH GE MARINEOur success with the Navy SBIR research paved the way to our current partnership with GE Marine. With GE Marine’s support, Echogen is adapting our waste heat system for shipboard installations. By taking advantage of our technologies, GE Marine can improve upon their diverse portfolio of solutions with increased engine power output, reduced fuel consumption, and reduced overall emissions.
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NAVY DIESEL ENGINE AND GAS TURBINE ENGINE WASTE ENERGY-HEAT RECOVERY RETROFIT PROGRAM FOR NAVY SURFACE SHIPSGeneral InformationCountry: United StatesNotice/Contract Number: fbo:n0002415r4205Publication Date: Jun 3, 2015Deadline Jun 1, 2015Funding Agency: Department of the NavyOriginal Language: EnglishSynopsisThe Naval Sea System Command (NAVSEA) is hereby issuing a Request for Information (RFI) on behalf of PMS 320 (the Electric Ships Office) and the NAVSEA Energy Office (SEA 05T) seeking information on energy and - or heat recovery systems, heat exchangers, and advanced energy conversion technologies applicable to either diesel or gas turbine engine exhaust for use on Navy surface ships. NAVSEA seeks to determine the technology readiness level, industry capability, commercial basis, development steps, and estimated costs for such technologies. The present or near term status of these technologies may inspire investment by the Navy in characterization for Navy applications, small scale component or system development, or small business innovation research (SBIR) topics, as appropriate. Promising technologies may also be considered in military sealift operational logistics improvement applications.DescriptionThe primary objective of the engine exhaust energy recovery effort is to reduce the Navy's overall energy footprint, per Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) directive, by utilizing readily available heat that is being rejected to the atmosphere and converting it into useful work. The Navy's goal is to increase system efficiency by at least 5 percent (includes a combination both the prime mover and energy recovery system outputs) and to achieve a return on investment for any potential systems in less than 5 years. The Navy is targeting existing ship platforms that present the best opportunity for fuel savings and a favorable return on investment. The technologies of interest include, but are not limited to, readily adaptable heat exchanger(s) on the shipboard exhaust system; solid state thermo-electric energy recovery; application of novel thermodynamic cycles; and other techniques for reduction in energy losses. The focus of this request is to gain knowledge of the current and projected state of the art for improvements in heat exchanger reliability under extreme temperature transients. This section provides a set of performance characteristics that meet the needs of the notional system, which must:a. Be dependent on prime mover exhaust for a heat source with seawater acting as the ultimate heat sink for the system.b. Not cause the exhaust back pressure to exceed the maximum allowable for the chosen engine.c. Not affect the current state of system maintainability and reliability, while also possessing very high reliability, maintainability, and availability characteristics itself, and not affect the prime mover if not in operation or if parts break. It is noted that heat exchangers, for instance, that are more reliable with less overall efficiency improvement may be more favorably viewed than more efficient technologies that are deemed less reliable.d. Accept the complete range of engine exhaust temperatures, including frequent temperature transients due to engine power cycling (nominally 400 F to 1200 F) and possess rapid start-up capabilities.e. Be modular and compact for minimal impact on ship architecture.f. Be easy to install and replace and have easily replaceable or maintainable components.g. Yield an increase in fuel efficiency of a combined system (prime mover and energy recovery system) on the order of five (5) percent. Higher yielding technologies may have a better business case for implementation, but lower yielding energy savings (that may be more appropriate in a back-fit on an existing plant) are also of interest.h. Require minimal interface with the prime mover control system.i. Be inherently safe to operate and maintain and shall not be made with hazardous materials or create additional hazardous environments for ship's force.j. Are sufficiently robust to withstand shipboard shock, vibration, and other environmental conditions.k. Require minimal system logistics support.Fuels: The following fuels are available for use on Navy diesel engines and gas turbine engines: NATO F-76 fuel (MIL-F-16884 Naval Distillate) (sulfur cap of 1,000 ppmw) and NATO F-44/MIL-T-5624 Aviation Turbine Fuel, Grade JP-5 fuel (sulfur cap of 2,000 ppmw). Engines may also be capable of operating on Marine Gas Oil to ASTM D6985, when F-76 and F-44 are not available.Notional Diesel Engine Operating Conditions: The Navy is considering the CAT 3608 diesel engine and the Colt-Pielstick PA6B diesel engine for evaluation. Exhaust gas temperatures for the CAT 3608 diesel engine range from approximately 750 F at 25 percent load, 870 F at 50 percent load to 840 F at full load. The exhaust back pressure ranges from 5.0 - 10.0 inches water. The exhaust gas mass flow rate for the CAT 3608 diesel engine range from 4 lbm/s to 10 lbm/s. Exhaust gas temperatures for the Colt-Pielstick PA6B diesel engine range from approximately 700 F at 25 percent load, 740 F at 50 percent load to 720 F at full load. The exhaust back pressure ranges from 5.0 - 13.0 inches water. The exhaust gas mass flow rate for the PA6B diesel engine range from 5 lbm/s to 17 lbm/s.Notional Gas Turbine Engine Operating Conditions: There are two types of gas turbine engines in consideration: ship service gas turbine generators (SSGTGs) and main propulsion gas turbine engines (MPGTEs). Post-turbine temperatures for dry exhaust for SSGTGs range from approximately 600 F at 25 percent load to 1200 F at full load and the maximum specified exhaust back pressure is 6.0 inches water. The exhaust gas mass flow rate for SSGTGs range from 28 lbm/s to 34 lbm/s. The generators run at approximately 50 percent of rated power most of the time, with a corresponding exhaust temperature of approximately 750 F. Two common MPGTEs within the Navy are the MT30 and the LM2500 gas turbine engines. The exhaust conditions at rated power for the MT30 are approximately 250 lbm/s at 860 F, while the exhaust conditions for the LM2500 at rated power are approximately 150 lbm/s at 1050 F. It must be noted, however, that these engines rarely run at 100 percent rated power. Due to rapid startup capabilities, gas turbine engine exhaust can increase from ambient conditions to approximately 1200 F within one minute during startup. Any piece of equipment exposed to the exhaust must be able to withstand this thermal transient without failing.ResponsesThe Navy is seeking to identify promising engine exhaust energy recovery technologies, notionally TRL 5 and above, that as part of a system would yield increased fuel efficiency with the aforementioned engines and under the aforementioned conditions. The Navy is looking for any relevant information that the vendor is able to provide regarding a potential solution and the "balance of plant" impacts for shipboard use. Responses should be limited to 20 pages or less (not including any drawings or sketches). Examples of this information include, but are not limited to:a. Name (and model or designation if available) of technology.b. The technology readiness level (the state of the art).c. Industry capability.d. Commercial basis (where has the technology been fielded at scale, units in the field and maximum hours accumulated per unit).e. Development steps (where further effort is necessary to deliver a field-able in a US Navy surface ship, and time required for completing the development).f. Estimated costs for such technologies (development and production), preferably on a per kW basis.g. Estimated energy recovered and the net work output (preferably in kW). The utility of the useful work derived from the energy recovered may be applied to augmentation of HVAC, improving operating prime mover efficiency, added electric power output, or something else yet to be quantified.h. A simplified flow schematic that displays major component.i. Thermodynamic data at all major states, including, but not limited to, temperature, pressure, flow rate, efficiency/effectiveness, enthalpy, and entropy.j. Estimated dimensions (in.), volume (in.3), and weight (lb.).k. Materials list (all detrimental and hazardous materials used in the system must be specifically identified including any special disposal/handling instruction).l. Operational limitations (e.g. fuel sulfur, etc.).m. Applicable laboratory test data (e.g. performance, reliability, maintenance, and durability, etc.).n. Applicable field test data (e.g. performance, reliability, maintenance, and durability, etc.).o. Description of technology and operating principles (relevant SAE technical papers or other peer-reviewed published papers would be of assistance).p. Maintenance requirements.q. Reliability (durability) estimate.r. Logistics footprint estimate.s. If the technology or system could impact prime mover operation, the specific scenarios must be outlined with impacts and recovery methods.t. Anticipated fouling and related changes in back pressure based on engine load profiles and time, and anticipated consequences of failure of heat exchanger parts.Responses and comments are requested by 5:00 pm (EST), on June 1, 2015. However, submissions will be accepted after this date, but feedback may not be as timely or contribute to NAVSEA's strategic planning. Responses should indicate enough detail so that potential Navy interest can be assessed. Responses are requested to be provided electronically and acceptable formats include Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint files. All inquiries and comment submissions should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. The information provided will assist NAVSEA in developing and further defining future procurement and acquisition strategies and it is desirable that it not contain proprietary information. However, if some of the information provided is considered proprietary to the respondent, that portion shall be segregated and labeled as such and will be treated as Business Sensitive and will not be shared outside of Government activities and agencies without the permission of the provider.This RFI in no way binds the Government to offer contracts to responding companies. Defense and commercial contractors, including small businesses, veteran-owned businesses, service-disabled veteran-owned businesses, HUBZone small businesses, and woman-owned small businesses are encouraged to participate. This RFI is the initiation of market research under Part 10 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), and is not a Request for Proposals (RFP). All information shall be provided free of charge to the Government. NAVSEA may request further information regarding the capabilities of respondents to meet the requirements and may request a presentation and/or a site visit as deemed necessary. No written responses will be returned.Further, the Navy is not at this time seeking proposals and will not accept unsolicited proposals. Responders are advised that the U.S. Government will not pay for any information or administrative costs incurred in response to this RFI; all costs associated with responding to this RFI will be solely at the interested party's expense. If a solicitation is released, it will be synopsized on the Federal Business Opportunities (FedBizOpps) website (http://www.fedbizopps.gov/). It is the responsibility of potential offerors to monitor these sites for additional information pertaining to this requirement.Set-aside code: N/A Contact: Joseph Tannenbaum, Acquisition Manager, Phone 202-781-2629, Email firstname.lastname@example.org - Emily J. Stepien, Contract Specialist, Phone 2027815047, Email email@example.com Updated on 2015/03/24
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Rolls-Royce signs MTU diesel genset supply contract for UK Royal Navy’s Type 26 Global Combat ShipWednesday, 11 May 2016* Order for 12 MTU diesel gensets for first three frigates* Gensets meet IMO III emissions standard* Rolls-Royce also supplying MT30 gas turbine packagesFRIEDRICHSHAFEN, GERMANY – Rolls-Royce is to supply twelve MTU diesel gensets to prime contractor BAE Systems for the first three Type 26 Global Combat Ships due to go into service with the Royal Navy.The deal means that the core components of the frigate’s combined propulsion system will come from Rolls-Royce: four MTU diesel gensets with 20V 4000 M53B engines, each delivering 3,015 kW of mechanical power, and one Rolls-Royce MT30 gas turbine. The MTU brand is part of Rolls-Royce Power Systems.“The fact that we're involved with our diesel gensets in this leading-edge project by the Royal Navy fills us with great pride and demonstrates the precision with which Rolls-Royce is able to meet customer requirements,” said Knut Müller, head of MTU's governmental business. “One key reason for winning this order is MTU's wealth of experience of combined propulsion systems.”The Type 26 Global Combat Ship is the first newly-designed Royal Navy surface vessel to be equipped with MTU engines. It is also the first time Rolls-Royce has supplied a naval vessel with an MTU propulsion system that meets the requirements of the IMO III emissions directive. To achieve this, each of the four engines on the vessel will be fitted with an exhaust aftertreatment system, which uses a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit to neutralise nitrogen oxide emissions. Rolls-Royce has carried out extensive testing of this technology, which has already been successfully used in MTU off-highway applications, for use in maritime propulsion systems.The Type 26 Global Combat Ship is the Royal Navy’s third major project involving MTU engines. Rolls-Royce is supplying Series 4000 diesel gensets for the refit of the Duke class (Type 23) frigates, while the Astute class submarines already have MTU diesel gensets.Within the Combined Diesel-Electric or Gas Turbine (CODELOG) propulsion system for the Type 26 frigates, the MTU diesel gensets will provide electrical power for on-board electronics and for cruising propulsion. The Rolls-Royce gas turbine will be used for propulsion when travelling at high-speeds. The MTU gensets are bedded on specialist mounts and surrounded by an acoustic enclosure, ensuring that the propulsion system operates at low noise levels. A similar propulsion system featuring MTU diesel gensets is used aboard the German F-125 class frigates and French FREMM frigates.The MTU product range for the government shipping sector comprises engines with power outputs of between 269 and 10,000 kW. As a system supplier, MTU is also able to develop and supply complete propulsion solutions including ship automation systems.
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MattReloaded wrote:From GE Power Conversion :GE LM2500+G4 Gas Turbine Hybrid Electric Propulsion System to Power Italian Navy’s New PPA Offshore Patrol ShipsMar 03, 2016EVENDALE, Ohio - March 3, 2016 – GE’s Marine Solutions announced it will provide LM2500+G4 gas turbines that will power the Italian Navy’s new Pattugliatori Polivalenti d’Altura (PPA) multipurpose offshore patrol ships. The PPA’s hybrid electric propulsion system also will use GE’s shock-proof MV3000 drives and a GE-designed electrical network of motors as part of the propulsion system. Avio Aero, a GE Aviation business headquartered in Italy, will have the design responsibility for the gas turbine packages.The PPA ships will be built by Fincantieri at its Integrated Shipyard of Riva Trigoso and Muggiano. Fincantieri is one of the world’s largest shipbuilding groups and a leader in the naval shipbuilding industry. According to Fincantieri’s announcement on this project, the PPA patrol ship will serve multiple functions from patrol with sea rescue capacity to civil protection operations. It will be 133 meters long, and will carry 90 crew members with additional accommodations for up to 171 members.“We are excited to be part of a project that will continue to modernize and strengthen the Italian Navy’s surface fleet,” said Tim Schweikert, President and Chief Executive Officer, GE’s Marine Solutions. “Our contract includes an order for seven LM2500+G4 gas turbines. The ship’s flexible and unique hybrid propulsion plant will feature small gearbox mounted-motors for low speed operations, two propulsion diesels for mid-speed service and the gas turbine to reach more than 32 knots. We will also be responsible for the electrical system integration of the hybrid system,” Schweikert added (see figure below).The PPA’s MV3000 drive developed by GE’s Marine Solutions will drive the electric motor to rotate the propeller in low speed operations. The hybrid motor and drive also can act as the generator to power equipment onboard the vessel, such as weapons and sensors. While conducting disaster relief operations, the PPA will be able to provide up to 2MW of power to the shore. GE drives can convert the frequency of the electricity generated to 50 or 60 hertz, allowing smooth shore connection whatever the location.
GE LM2500+G4 Gas Turbine Hybrid Electric Propulsion System to Power Italian Navy’s New PPA Offshore Patrol ShipsMar 03, 2016EVENDALE, Ohio - March 3, 2016 – GE’s Marine Solutions announced it will provide LM2500+G4 gas turbines that will power the Italian Navy’s new Pattugliatori Polivalenti d’Altura (PPA) multipurpose offshore patrol ships. The PPA’s hybrid electric propulsion system also will use GE’s shock-proof MV3000 drives and a GE-designed electrical network of motors as part of the propulsion system. Avio Aero, a GE Aviation business headquartered in Italy, will have the design responsibility for the gas turbine packages.The PPA ships will be built by Fincantieri at its Integrated Shipyard of Riva Trigoso and Muggiano. Fincantieri is one of the world’s largest shipbuilding groups and a leader in the naval shipbuilding industry. According to Fincantieri’s announcement on this project, the PPA patrol ship will serve multiple functions from patrol with sea rescue capacity to civil protection operations. It will be 133 meters long, and will carry 90 crew members with additional accommodations for up to 171 members.“We are excited to be part of a project that will continue to modernize and strengthen the Italian Navy’s surface fleet,” said Tim Schweikert, President and Chief Executive Officer, GE’s Marine Solutions. “Our contract includes an order for seven LM2500+G4 gas turbines. The ship’s flexible and unique hybrid propulsion plant will feature small gearbox mounted-motors for low speed operations, two propulsion diesels for mid-speed service and the gas turbine to reach more than 32 knots. We will also be responsible for the electrical system integration of the hybrid system,” Schweikert added (see figure below).The PPA’s MV3000 drive developed by GE’s Marine Solutions will drive the electric motor to rotate the propeller in low speed operations. The hybrid motor and drive also can act as the generator to power equipment onboard the vessel, such as weapons and sensors. While conducting disaster relief operations, the PPA will be able to provide up to 2MW of power to the shore. GE drives can convert the frequency of the electricity generated to 50 or 60 hertz, allowing smooth shore connection whatever the location.
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GE LM2500 Gas Turbine MMP to Lower Costs; Reduce Weight by 50%EVENDALE, OHIO (August 3, 2016) – GE’s Marine Solutions announced that the LM2500 gas turbine Module Modernization Program (MMP) is now underway with General Dynamics Bath Iron Works and the United States Navy. The MMP will inject updated technology into the gas turbine module system and reduce enclosure weight by approximately 50% (*).GE continually invests in its LM2500 family of marine gas turbines. “For the MMP, the infusion of new technologies will improve the manufacturing and maintainability of the LM2500 marine module, all the while reducing module weight, noise, radiated heat – and most importantly – life cycle costs,” said GE’s Brien Bolsinger, Vice President, General Manager, Evendale, Ohio. “The new marine module will meet global naval requirements, including Mil 901D shock. Once available in 2018, this lightweight design can easily be applied to LM2500 family gas turbines used by other international navies,” he added.The U.S. Navy is GE’s largest marine gas turbine customer with over 350 LM2500 engines in operation across multiple programs including DDG-51 ARLEIGH BURKE, LCS-2 INDEPENDENCE and LHA-6 AMERICA class ships. Products developed under the MMP will be introduced to the U.S. Navy’s DDG-51 program starting with Flight III.The MMP focuses on composite initiatives including the enclosure, inlet barrier wall and inlet screen. The MMP also targets gas turbine and package sensors to improve condition monitoring and manufacturability. For instance, all bolted joints between the walls and roof panels will be eliminated in the composite enclosure to improve noise attenuation and simplify assembly. The composite enclosure will feature improved entry points via the addition of an access panel to the inlet plenum, enlarged rear access panels and improved top access hatch design (see diagram below). These enhancements will significantly reduce the weight of the door and the hatch and will improve ingress/egress, especially in the nose-down orientation on board ship. Other key composite improvements include:* Reduced enclosure weight by approximately 50%* Improved noise attenuation* Significant reduction in radiated heat; all external surface temperatures are expected to be less than 110°FDetailed design for MMP products is ongoing, with extensive fire testing on subcomponents planned for 2016. The prototype enclosure is expected to be complete in April 2017, and full scale fire, shock, noise and vibration testing is planned to be completed mid-2018. The new composite enclosure will be available by the fourth quarter 2018.(*) Excludes base structure
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Project Napier sees twin-track plan adopted to resolve Type 45 problemsWarship Technology: May 2016Commissioned into service between July 2009 and September 2013, the six Type 45 destroyers are the first front-line warships in the world to introduce an Integrated Electric Propulsion (IEP) system. The decision to adopt IEP at the heart of which is the Rolls-Royce WR-21 marine gas turbine and its associated recuperation system was taken in the expectation that it would realise multiple operating benefits including improved fuel efficiency, reduced maintenance and manpower requirements, and lower environmental impact.However, early operating experience has revealed a wide range of problems with regard to both reliability and performance. Numerous instances of total electrical failure have occurred during underway operations, and it has become evident that the marine engineering issues affecting the power and propulsion system are deep-seated and systemic in nature. Reflecting this, last year’s Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) included a specific commitment to improve the Type 45 IEP system: this work is being advanced under an activity known as Project Napier.The original decision to select IEP for Type 45 was taken back in 2000. The judgement to adopt what was an innovative but, in a warship application, still unproven power and propulsion architecture reflected the strong thrust prevailing within the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Royal Navy’s marine engineering community towards the adoption of an ‘Electric Ship’ architecture for future warships on the grounds of improved survivability, improved operating efficiency, reduced costs of ownership, and an ability to meet the needs of future pulsed power weapon systems. The extant Marine Engineering Development Strategy also espoused the adoption of high-efficiency, complex cycle gas turbine technology on the basis of the through-life benefits accruing from significantly improved fuel efficiency at part load.IEP is fundamentally different from conventional mechanically driven machinery arrangements in that it uses a common set of prime movers to provide power to both propulsion and ship service ‘consumers’. However, while IEP is well proven in the commercial marine sector, it remains novel in a warship application given the requirement for much higher power densities and shock standards compared to existing commercial designs.One factor that strongly influenced the choice of IEP for Type 45 was the encouraging news from the US Navy’s Integrated Power System (IPS) land-based testbed in Philadelphia, where testing had demonstrated the performance of a 20 megawatt (MW) Advanced Induction Motor of sufficient compactness and weight to fit inside the Type 45 hull. Confidence in the technology had in January 2000 seen the decision taken by the US Navy to endorse the use of the IPS architecture for the next-generation DD-21 land attack destroyer (later to become the DDG-1000 Zumwalt class). A second factor was the impending award of a contract for an Electric Ship Technology Demonstrator (ESTD) to de-risk the full electric solution for the future. The ESTD subsequently built up at a facility at Whetstone in Leicestershire was conceived to allow system-wide integration and testing in support of future surface ship and submarine electric ship architectures.Taking the progress of the IPS test programme into account, and the UK’s planned investment in technology de-risking through the ESTD, BAE Systems and the MoD in early 2000 reviewed the selection of Combined Gas and Electric (COGAL) machinery arrangement baselined for the Type 45 programme in late 1999. After a detailed study a decision conference assessing 14 different solutions concluded that IEP represented the optimum solution when assessed on a whole-life cost basis. As a result, the decision was taken to drop the COGAL baseline and instead pursue direct drive IEP with fixed-pitch propellers on the basis it represented the best option in terms of through-life costs, performance and risk. The IEP system would leverage the Advanced Induction Motor and associated converter tested at the IPS shore-based test site in Philadelphia.There was an acknowledgement at the outset that the decision to proceed with IEP carried a greater degree of risk than a more traditional solution. However, the judgement at the time was that these risks would be outweighed by the long-term benefits of a propulsion system using a reduced number of prime movers acting in a more integrated fashion. As well as improved fuel efficiency, IEP was seen to provide through-life savings in maintenance and personnel costs, along with lower environmental impacts.As regards the supply of gas turbines for Type 45, this requirement was initially competed by BAE Systems (as prime contractor). GE offered the proven and widely used simple-cycle LM2500, while Rolls-Royce proposed the complex cycle WR-21, then still completing development. Unlike simple-cycle gas turbines, which are inefficient at part load, the complex cycle WR-21 has been designed to deliver more efficient power generation over a wide range of demand. This is achieved by using an intercooler to cool the air that flows through the engine before combustion occurs, and a recuperator to recover waste energy from the exhaust so as to improve the overall cycle efficiency.BAE Systems’ evaluation of the two rival bids concluded that while both engines met requirements, the LM2500 was both cheaper to acquire and presented lower technical risk. However, in November 2000 the MoD announced its decision to set aside the competition and negotiate a sole-source contract with Rolls-Royce for the supply of WR-21. While acknowledging that WR-21 carried a greater degree of risk, the MoD justified its decision in part on the basis of factors falling outside the Type 45 programme, including commonality of support with existing Rolls-Royce engines, the suitability of WR-21 for specific Royal Navy operating profiles, and the through-life cost savings accruing from WR-21’s low fuel consumption across the power range. There were also significant industrial and political considerations.IEP architectureEach Type 45 has an IEP system operating through twin shafts, each driven by a 20MW Advanced Induction Motor. Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) converters provide variable frequency power supplies for the two 20MW Advanced Induction Motors directly coupled to the propeller shafts. Unlike all other vessels of this power, these motors are direct fed from the high-voltage bus without drive transformers, given increased gravimetric and volumetric density. The drive arrangement of a PWM converter with an Advanced Induction Motor offers the normal benefits of electric propulsion, but additionally brings the shock withstand, low noise and vibration, and fallback/failure modes needed for a full warship.The electrical power for the propulsion and ships service load is provided by the two 21MW-rated WR-21 gas turbines (each driving a two-pole cylindrical rotor generator at up to 3,600rpm) and two anchor-load Wärtsilä 12V200 diesel generator sets rated at 2MW each. Two main high-voltage switchboards distribute power to consumers, either at 4,160V AC to the VDM25000 propulsion converters, or via transformers at 440V and 115V AC to weapons and ship services.The Type 45 IEP system was shore-tested using the ESTD at Whetstone. These de-risking trials tested a subset of the Type 45 power and propulsion plant in a variety of regimes and modes. However, while the ESTD de-risked the functional integration of the IEP design, in retrospect it appears that it did not achieve sufficient running hours to provide adequate equipment reliability assurance.At the outset, the design intent was that the IEP system would typically run on a single WR-21 gas turbine alternator (GTA) in a single-island mode, with the second GTA brought on line only in ‘high risk’ operating regimes; the two 2MW diesel alternators were to provide power for harbour services and ‘blackout’ recovery, and not foreseen to perform as true backup generators in the event of GTA failure. In actual fact, current operating practice tends towards one WR-21 and one auxiliary diesel in single-island mode.However, operating experience has revealed significant shortcomings in the IEP system, both with specific equipments and fragility in the overall system architecture. These issues have collectively resulted in numerous ship-wide power outages.The most complete overview of the problems, and their root causes, became public towards the end of March 2016 with the release of a letter from Secretary of State for Defence Michael Fallon to Dr Julian Lewis MP, chair of the House of Commons Defence Committee (HCDC).According to Fallon, the first evidence of performance and reliability shortfalls had in fact emerged during ESTD shore testing in 2005, though by the end of that year “the level of performance was deemed sufficient to proceed to the next stage [sea trials] of the programme”.First-of-class HMS Daring commenced sea trials in July 2007. A large number of defects quickly became evident in the IEP system, with industry required to identify and implement improvements in system configuration, tuning and reliability. Between the first Type 45 launch in February 2006 and the sixth and final Type 45 launch in October 2010, approximately 50 design changes were introduced.Yet the truth was that the interrelated nature of the defects associated with the IEP system architecture masked the real extent of the shortcomings inherent in the design. In 2011 an independent study commissioned by the MoD found that there was “no single root cause underlying the low reliability”, pointing instead to a “large group of unconnected individual causes.” The report concluded that IEP remained a sound choice for Type 45, while at the same time noting that “acceptable reliability will [only] be achieved once the issues identified in this report have been satisfactorily resolved”.Referring specifically to the power and propulsion system design, the report concluded that poor performance was attributable to a combination of both design shortfall and reliability problems. A total of 16 specific recommendations were made, all of which were approved and taken forward into design, testing and implementation.Fallon’s letter to the HCDC notes that the process for the design, integration, trials and acceptance of these design modifications “is necessarily rigorous and time consuming”, and so the majority of IEP system alterations were not embodied into the Type 45 ships until after the sea trials of the sixth and final ship (HMS Duncan) in 2012. “The ships were therefore accepted into service based on the performance and reliability improvements anticipated,” he continued. “Key to this was the clear conclusion of the 2011 independent report that acceptable reliability would be achieved when all its recommendations were implemented.”All of the various recommendations contained in the 2011 report had been realised by 2013. However, while reliability did continue to increase, the rate of improvement began to slow. Additionally, in-service experience accrued through the deployment of ships to the most demanding operational environments revealed that the original design intent of operating the ship while running WR-21 alone was flawed. “Only the addition of extra prime movers, in effect changing the design architecture, would allow these shortfalls to be addressed,” acknowledged Fallon in his letter to the HCDC.Project NapierProject Napier was established in 2014 with two core work strands. The first of these, known as the Equipment Improvement Plan (EIP), is continuing efforts to enhance system reliability and to meet the original design intent in the near term. The second component of Project Napier is a longer term Power Improvement Plan (PIP), intended to improve overall system resilience by adding upgraded diesel generators to provide the electrical generation capacity required to meet the overwhelming majority of propulsion and ship power requirements without reliance on WR-21.Various measures and modifications to the existing power and propulsion system have already been embodied, or are in the process of being introduced incrementally, under the EIP. These include improvements to system integration aspects, and modifications to converters and converter cabinets. In addition, the training, doctrine and operating guidance provided to ships’ crews has been revised and refreshed to take account of initial operating experience.Further ahead, the PIP project plans to deliver a diesel generator upgrade that will be embodied towards the end of the decade so as to add greater resilience to the power and propulsion system. Feasibility studies for this work, co-funded by BAE Systems and the MoD, concluded at the end of March 2015.The PIP is now into its assessment phase, with three alternative options and a variety of delivery models currently being investigated with a number of industrial partners. The objective is to provide sufficient additional electrical generation capacity such that the IEP system can make cruise speeds (covering the major part of the Type 45 operating profile) on diesels alone. The WR-21 GTAs will remain to provide boost power as necessary, but will be used much less often.It is expected that a down-selection to a preferred PIP technical solution will occur in mid-2016 which will form the basis of a final recommendation to the MoD’s Investment Approvals Committee. The total cost and timetable of embodying the diesel generator upgrade will be determined at the main investment decision point, and will be conditioned to a large part by the final design solution selected. In advance of the long-term solution promised by the PIP, the MoD insists that it is already seeing significant improvements in the general reliability of the Type 45 power and propulsion system, including the WR-21 GTA.
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DSME launches South Korea's first FFX-II frigateRidzwan Rahmat, Singapore - IHS Jane's Defence Weekly07 June 2016Key Points* South Korea has launched its first FFX-II guided-missile frigate* Platform is on track to be commissioned by the end of 2018South Korea's Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME) has launched the country's first FFX-II platform, the company confirmed with IHS Jane's on 7 June.The ship, which has been named Daegu with pennant number 818, was launched on 2 June at the company's shipyard in Okpo. The FFX-II platform is a larger variant of the Incheon (FFX-I)-class ships that are in service with the Republic of Korea Navy (RoKN).According to specifications provided by DSME, the platform features an overall length of 122 m and an overall beam of 14 m. The ship has a standard displacement of 2,800 tonnes and a full load displacement of 3,600 tonnes. Powered by one Rolls-Royce MT30 turbine engine and four diesel generators in a combined diesel-electric or gas configuration, the ship can attain a maximum speed of 30 kt, the company said.The FFX-II platform is armed with one 127 mm Mk 45 Mod 4 naval gun and one aft-facing, six-barrelled, 20 mm Raytheon Phalanx close-in weapon system. The ship has also been equipped with a 16-cell Korean vertical launching system for defence against aerial threats and six 324 mm torpedo tubes for submarine prosecution.The ship can accommodate a crew of 120 and one medium helicopter on its flight deck.Daegu is scheduled for delivery to the RoKN in late 2017 and expected to be commissioned in late 2018, DSME said. A contract for a second vessel in the class is expected to be issued by the South Korean government this year.(296 of 316 words)
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Desk-Size Turbine Could Power a TownGE sees its new turbine as a strong rival to batteries for storing power from the grid.by David Talbot April 11, 2016GE Global Research is testing a desk-size turbine that could power a small town of about 10,000 homes. The unit is driven by “supercritical carbon dioxide,” which is in a state that at very high pressure and up to 700 °C exists as neither a liquid nor a gas. After the carbon dioxide passes through the turbine, it's cooled and then repressurized before returning for another pass.The unit’s compact size and ability to turn on and off rapidly could make it useful in grid storage. It’s about one-tenth the size of a steam turbine of comparable output, and has the potential to be 50 percent efficient at turning heat into electricity. Steam-based systems are typically in the mid-40 percent range; the improvement is achieved because of the better heat-transfer properties and reduced need for compression in a system that uses supercritical carbon dioxide compared to one that uses steam. The GE prototype is 10 megawatts, but the company hopes to scale it to 33 megawatts.In addition to being more efficient, the technology could be more nimble—in a grid-storage scenario, heat from solar energy, nuclear power, or combustion could first be stored as molten salt and the heat later used to drive the process.While such a heat reservoir could also be used to boil water to power a steam turbine, a steam system could take 30 minutes to get cranked up, while a carbon dioxide turbine might take only a minute or two—making it well-suited for on-the-spot power generation needed during peak demand periods.GE's system might also be better than huge arrays of batteries. Adding more hours of operation just means having a larger or hotter reservoir of the molten salt, rather than adding additional arrays of giant batteries. “The key thing will come down to economics,” says Doug Hofer, the GE engineer in charge of the project. While there’s work ahead, he says, “at this point we think our economic story is favorable compared to batteries.”
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OldNick wrote:@MattReloaded. Re. the pdf on proposed propulsion system for future French CV by DCNS/Aubriot cites one of the disadvantage of an Integrated Full Electric Propulsion with two shafts lines (as in RN QE class CVF and Zumwalt class destroyer) as harmonic pollution. The main source of harmonics is usually the diode rectifier stages of Variable Speed/Frequency Drives (VFDs) for controlling the propulsion motors. Aubriot's preferred system is the Integrated Full Electric Propulsion with three shafts lines with no mention of the disadvantage of harmonic pollution. Would have thought an IFEP with two or three shafts would make no difference to the harmonic pollution?
Sep 16 16 1:28 PM
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